People may be familiar with products that claim to impact gut health via probiotics and prebiotics, like kombucha and supplements. Prebiotics are plant fibers that encourage growth of beneficial gut bacteria, while probiotics are usually live bacteria that are associated with good gut health (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2021). Diversity comes up often in discussions about gut microbes. Diversity refers to the amount of different species present in a sample, and more diverse samples contain a wider range of microbes. We know that a less diverse community of gut microbes is associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (Cénit et al., 2014) and obesity (Turnbaugh et al., 2008). However, relatively little is known about how the performance of endurance exercise might impact the microbes living within the gut.
Continue reading “Athletes Have Unique Gut Microbial Communities”
There are many common bovine diseases yet there is one in particular that is undetected, difficult to treat and detrimental for farmers. Endometritis is a common bovine disease that is an inflammation of the innermost layer of the uterus. It is typically seen 21 days postpartum and there are no symptoms of illness. Endometritis occurs due to the dilating of the cervix and relaxation of the vagina; this natural occurrence post-birth allows the essential barriers to become impaired and the uterus becomes compromised (“Endometritis in Cattle”). Another reason this occurs is that the cow’s immune system is suppressed in the last few weeks of pregnancy and post-birth.
Endometritis can be split into two groups: subclinical and clinical. Subclinical is the non-severe form that is typically undiagnosed because there is no external clinical finding. Clinical is the diagnosed and treated disease; typically showing vaginal discharge. Whereas subclinical is only diagnosed through cytology. Continue reading “How Microbes are Affecting Dairy Farmers”